ITTISHÂL AL-WUJÛD Telaah Hermeneutis atas Ajaran Mistik Al-Fârâbî

Iswahyudi Iswahyudi

Abstract


Abstract: Al-Fârâbî had mystical doctrines which are different from those of other philosophers, such as Shuhrawardi, al-H{allâj, al-Bust}ami, as well as Ibn 'Arabî. Al-Fârâbî’s mystical doctrines indeed are unique but very few researchers who had seriously studied them. In that context, this paper seeks to discuss mystical doctrines of Al-Fârâbî. Discussion is directed to the basic assumptions, their structures, and their relevances for contemporary religious life. This study found that the basic assumptions underlying mystical Al-Fârâbî are the view of wujûd and man's relationship with God. According to Al-Fârâbî an attempt to obtain happiness is by tapping soul of nâmiyah (plant life) and soul of h}assiyah (animal spirit) in order to achieve  soul of nât}iqah (soul of thinking). Through soul of nât}iqah, someone will be able to reach a gifted reason ('aql al-mustafâd). With the attainment of the gifted reason, someone will be in touch with 'Aql Fa'âl (Tenth Intellect), as a reason in wujûd rûh}iyah which serves as an intermediary between the nature of rûh}iyah with the nature of mâdiyah. Al-Fârâbî is theoretical mystics rather than practical one. Instead of the sufism of subjugation, the sufism of Al-Fârâbî is of awareness and of theoretical one.

 

 

Al-Fârâbî memiliki ajaran mistik yang berbeda dengan filosof lain, seperti Shuhrawardi, al-H{allâj, al-Bust}ami, dan juga Ibnu 'Arabî. Ajaran mistik Al-Fârâbî sesungguhnya unik namun sangat sedikit para peneliti yang mengkajinya secara serius. Dalam konteks itulah, tulisan ini berupaya membahas ajaran mistik Al-Fârâbî. Pembahasan diarahkan kepada asumsi dasar, konstruksi ajaran, dan implikasi ajaran mistik Al-Fârâbî, serta relevansinya bagi kehidupan keberagamaan kontemporer. Kajian ini menemukan bahwa asumsi dasar yang melandasi ajaran mistik Al-Fârâbî adalah pandangannya tentang wujûd dan hubungan manusia dengan Tuhan. Menurut Al-Fârâbî, usaha untuk memperoleh kebahagiaan dilakukan dengan cara menekan jiwa nâmiyah (jiwa tumbuh-tumbuhan) dan jiwa h}assiyah (jiwa binatang) agar dicapai jiwa nât}iqah (jiwa berpikir). Melalui jiwa nât}iqah, seseorang akan bisa mencapai akal terlimpah (‘aql al-mustafâd). Dengan pencapaian akal terlimpah, seseorang akan bisa berhubungan dengan ‘Aql Fa’âl (Akal Kesepuluh), sebagai akal dalam wujûd rûh}iyah yang bertugas sebagai perantara antara alam rûh}iyah dengan alam mâdiyah. Ajaran mistik Al-Fârâbî adalah ajaran mistik penalaran bukan sekedar tindakan praktis. Tasawuf Al-Fârâbî adalah tasawuf kesadaran bukan penundukan dan bercorak teoritis.

 

Keywords: mistik Islam, filsafat Islam, Alfârâbi, tasawuf.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21154/dialogia.v10i2.308

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DIALOGIA: Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial
Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Ponorogo
Jl. Pramuka No. 156 Ronowijayan Ponorogo, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

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