Talak di Luar Pengadilan Perspektif Fikih dan Hukum Positif

M Muhsin(1*), Soleh Hasan Wahid(2)
(1) Institut Agama Islam Negeri Ponorogo
(2) Institut Agama Islam Negeri Ponorogo
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.21154/syakhsiyyah.v3i1.3063

Abstract

Abstract: Divorce is breaking the ties of marriage and ending the husband and wife relationship. According to Fiqh law, divorce is considered legally binding when a husband pronounces the word talaq to his wife clearly and figuratively. Meanwhile, according to the Marriage Law, it is explained that divorce can only be carried out before the court after the court concerned tries and fails to reconcile the two parties. The focus of the problem in this study is: (1) What is the status of divorce outside the court according to fiqh law and positive law? (2) Which is used as a guideline between the two divorce proceedings on the termination of marriage? The type of research conducted by the author is field research using qualitative methods. The analysis used is the descriptive analysis method. The number of respondents in this study was five people with the category of divorce outside the court. Based on the method used in the study, it was concluded that the divorce handed down out of court was legal, according to fiqh, so that the marriage broke up by fiqh rules. However, the divorce is not legal according to positive law in Indonesia, so that in the eyes of positive law, the marriage has not been broken, and the positive law that applies in Indonesia is used as a guide to the dissolution of marriage because the legal consequences arising after the divorce are more clearly regulated so that obligations and rights that arise after the divorce is more secure.

Abstract: Talak adalah melepaskan ikatan pernikahan dan mengakhiri hubungan suami istri. Menurut hukum Fikih perceraian dianggap jatuh hukumnya ketika seorang suami mengucapkan kata talak kepada istrinya baik secara jelas maupun kiasan. Sedangkan menurut Undang-Undang Perkawinan dijelaskan bahwa perceraian hanya dapat dilakukan di depan pengadilan setelah pengadilan yang bersangkutan berusaha dan tidak berhasil mendamaikan kedua belah pihak. Fokus masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah: (1) Bagaimana status talak di luar pengadilan menurut hukum fikih dan hukum positif? (2) Manakah yang dijadikan pedoman antara dua proses perceraian terhadap putusnya perkawinan? Jenis penelitian yang dilakukan penulis merupakan penelitian lapangan (field research) yang menggunakan metode kualitatif. Analisis yang digunakan adalah metode analisis deskriptif. Jumlah responden dalam penelitian ini sebanyak lima orang dengan kategori melakukan penceraian di luar Pengadilan. Berdasarkan metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian dihasilkan kesimpulan bahwa, talak yang dijatuhkan di luar pengadilan adalah sah menurut fikih, sehingga perkawinannya putus sesuai dengan aturan fikih. Namun perceraian tersebut tidak sah menurut hukum positif di Indonesia, sehingga di mata hukum positif perkawinannya belum putus dan hukum positif yang berlaku di Indonesia yang dijadikan sebagai pedoman terhadap putusnya perkawinan, dikarenakan akibat hukum yang ditimbulkan setelah terjadinya perceraian lebih diatur dengan jelas, sehingga kewajiban dan hak yang timbul setelah terjadinya perceraian lebih terjamin.

Keywords


Hukum positif; talaq; fikih

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