MUDHARABAH SCHEME WITHIN THE ISLAMIC BANKING: PROFIT SHARING AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS IN IT

Supriatna Supriatna(1), Irpan Helmi(2*), Nurrohman Nurrohman(3)
(1) Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung
(2) Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Sabili Bandung
(3) Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.21154/kodifikasia.v14i2.2121

Abstract

Artikel ini membahas prinsip bagi hasil dalam skema mudharabah di perbankan syariah dan permasalahan yang terdapat di dalamnya dengan metode deskriptif-kualitatif melalui studi kepustakaan dan eksploratif literatur. Skema mudharabah biasanya diterapkan pada produk pembiayaan dan investas yang melibatkan dua pihak: shahib al-maal dan mudharib. Kedua belah pihak bekerjasama untuk mendapatkan keuntungan yang akan dibagikan sesuai dengan nisbah yang telah disepakati di awal akad. Apabila terjadi kerugian finansial, shahib al-maal akan menanggung semuanya, tetapi jika disebabkan oleh kelalaian pengelola modal maka kerugian tersebut harus ditanggung oleh mudharib. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam akad mudharabah mayoritas bank syariah menerapkan prinsip revenue-sharing yang secara tidak langsung direstui oleh Fatwa DSN 07/2000. Penerapan prinsip ini dapat memicu timbulnya rasa ketidakadilan karena bagi hasil dihitung berdasarkan laba kotor yang lebih menguntungkan pihak shahib al-maal dan kurang menguntungkan bagi mudharib. Kondisi ini membuat nasabah kurang termotivasi untuk memilih bank syariah ketimbang bank konvensional. Dilihat dari perspektif fiqh, bagi hasil dihitung berdasarkan keuntungan bersih sebagaimana diterapkan pada prinsip profit/loss-sharing, yang penerapannya juga direkomendasikan oleh OKI. Pada akhirnya, penyempurnaan pada Fatwa DSN 07/2000 perlu dilakukan untuk memberikan rasa keadilan bagi semua entitas mudharabah: shahib al-maal dan mudharib. [This article was created to discuss the principle of profit-sharing in the mudharabah scheme in Islamic banking and the problems contained therein using descriptive-qualitative methods through library study and literature exploratory. Mudharabah schemes are usually applied to financing and investment products that involve two parties: shahib al-maal and mudharib. Both parties collaborate to get profits which will be shared according to the nisbah agreed at the beginning of the contract. If there is a financial loss, shahib al-maal will bear everything, but if it is caused by the negligence of the capital-user then the loss must be borne by the mudharib. The results showed that in the mudharabah contract, the majority of Islamic banks apply the principle of revenue-sharing which is indirectly blessed by Fatwa DSN 07/2000. The implementation of this principle could trigger a sense of injustice because the profit-sharing is calculated based on gross profit which is more beneficial for the shahib al-maal and less profitable for the mudarib. This condition makes customers less motivated to choose Islamic banks rather than conventional banks. From the perspective of fiqh, profit-sharing is calculated based on net profit as it’s applied to the principle of profit/loss-sharing as well as recommended by the OIC. At the end, improvements to the Fatwa 07/2000, needs to be done to provide a sense of justice for all mudharabah entities: shahib al-maal and mudharib.]

Keywords


Mudharabah; Shahib al-maal; Mudharib; Profit-sharing; Islamic banking

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