Tanggalkan Khalifah di Bumi Ini: Membaca Narasi Sukarno Tentang Sekularisme Turki

Al Makin(1*)
(1) Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.21154/al-tahrir.v16i2.554

Abstract

Abstract: This article attempts to observe Sukarno’s article about the separation  between  religion and state” published in Panji Islam in 1940. Sukarno’s thought is still relevant to discuss  up to now in Indonesian because some conservative and radical groups of Muslim have given the louder voices to the government demanding the system of caliphate state and rejecting free democracy by intimidation which ironically seemed to be given to these groups to rise. More than fifty years ago, Sukarno clearly argued that caliphate system of leadership in Muslim society was no longer relevant and even outdated. Sukarno took the case of Turkey, through which he hailed Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’s efforts in abolishing the outdated Ottoman caliphate in order to build the modern democracy of Turkey, which was able to address more real challenges facing Muslim society. Sukarno explained clearly that the separation of religion and state in Muslim society was needed to make the survival of both religion and state. He also presented history of Turkey in his argument that caliphate system of governing was not pure Islamic one, as it was an evolution of older system of government from the ancient Greco-Byzantium, in which religion played a vital role to legitimate the power of some emperors. Let alone, the history of Turkey had witnessed the weakening caliphate system of  Ottoman in which religion and politics mingled so that Turkey was not able to control the vast Islamic territory, which ultimately its population rebelled the empire. Sukarno's reading and rhetoric in narrating Turkey was unique as he contextualized the Turkish history into Indonesian situation in the pre-independent period. Sukarno’s interpretation of Islam, history, and politics could serve as a foundation for those who sought the nature of religion and state relation and reminded those who recalled caliphate system during the reform era. Indeed, caliphate system has no place today in Indonesia as relentlessly told by Sukarno more than fifty years ago.

الملخص: حاول هذا المقال إعادة القراءة لمقال كتبه سوكارنو في صحيفة " لواء الإسلام" سنة 1940م  تحت العنوان " لما فصلت تركيا بين الدين والدولة ". ولا يزال هذا المقال يواكب السياق الإندونيسي بما فيها من ظاهرة الأصولية والمحافظة على التراث، ومن مطالباتها إقامة الخلافة والرد على الديموقراطية الحرّة. ردّ سوكارنو منذ بضع وخمسين سنة نظام الخلافة القديمة. رأى سوكارنو هذا في قضية مصطفى كمال أتترك الذي قضى على الخلافة وأقام الديموقراطية في تركيا، وقال " إن فصل الدين عن الدولة " أمر لازم لتقدّم كلّ منهما. و بالاضافة ذكر تاريخ الخلافة أنها كنظام تمزيجي –كنظام الدولة- بقيم من اليونان والروم حيث أن الدين أداة لشرعية القوة السياسية لهؤلاء الامبراطور . يظهر من هذا، أن حجة سوكارنو عن الإسلام والتاريخ والسياسة يمكن أن تكون أسسا لمن أراد معرفة الارتباط بين الدين والدولة.

Abstrak: Artikel ini membaca kembali tulisan Sukarno yang berjudul “Apa Sebab Turki Memisah Agama Dan Negara” terbit di Panji Islam, 1940, yang tetap relevan dalam konteks Indonesia yang saat ini menyaksikan penguatan radikalisasi dan konservatisme, diantara tuntutannya adalah penegakan khalifah dan penolakan demokrasi bebas. Lebih dari lima puluh tahun yang lalu Sukarno menolak sistem khalifah yang kuno. Sukarno melihat ini dalam kasus Turki dengan Mustafa Kemal Ataturk yang membubarkan khalifah dan menegakkan demokrasi di sana. Bagi Sukarno pemisahan agama dan negara merupakan keniscayaan untuk kemajuan keduanya. Sukarno juga menghadirkan sejarah khalifah bahwa itu hasil dari perpaduan dengan Yunani-Romawi dimana agama bermanfaat untuk legitimasi kekuasaan para kaisar. Di sini ditunjukkan bahwa argument Sukarno tentang Islam, sejarah dan politik bisa menjadi fondasi bagi yang ingin mengetahui relasi agama dan negara.

Keywords


Sukarno; religion and state; Islamic politics; Ottoman; Indonesia; secularization; caliphate

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