Dissenting Approaches of Islamic Economics: The Contemporary Juristic Discussion of Riba

Autor(s): Fuady Abdullah, Moh. Mukhlas
DOI: 10.21154/justicia.v17i1.1925

Abstract

Along with the rapid growth and spread of Islamic economic enterprises, some of their products have prompted debates among the Islamic scholars about their permissibility and whether they comprise usury (riba). Eventhough riba is one of the central concepts in Islamic economics, the ruling of riba and its definition are still among those objects of the ongoing long debates and discussions among Islamic scholars and economists. This issue comes about from a broader question about which kind of Islamic economic system should be developed as an alternative of its conventional counterpart. By examining discussions on riba found in contemporary literatures, it can be seen that the question is discussed through different approaches. At the same time, these approaches are used to understand and implement Sharia juristic principles in the field of economy. In general, there are three approaches; the modernist approach, the revivalist approach, and the literalist approach. To further understand these approaches, this paper identifies some main topics of the ongoing debate among the proponents of these approaches, namely, the position of Fiqh opinions in defining Islamic economic concepts, the objectives of Sharia to comply in economic activities, and also the question of the applicability of concepts concluded by each approach.

Seiring dengan cepatnya pertumbuhan dan penyebaran perusahaan berbasis ekonomi Islam, beberapa produk dari perusahaan tersebut telah memicu perdebatan di antara para sarjana Islam tentang legalitas dan keterkandungan unsur riba di dalamnya. Meskipun riba adalah salah satu konsep sentral dalam ekonomi Islam, legalitas riba dan definisinya masih menjadi objek perdebatan panjang yang terus berlangsung di antara para sarjana dan ekonom Islam. Masalah ini muncul dari pertanyaan yang lebih luas tentang bagaimana seharusnya model sistem ekonomi Islam yang dikembangkan sebagai alternatif dari ekonomi konvensional. Dengan menelaah diskusi tentang riba yang ditemukan dalam literatur kontemporer, dapat dilihat bahwa pertanyaan tersebut didorong oleh berbagai pendekatan yang digunakan untuk memahami dan menerapkan prinsip-prinsip Syariah di bidang ekonomi. Secara umum, ada tiga pendekatan; pendekatan modernis, pendekatan revivalis, dan pendekatan literalis. Untuk lebih memahami pendekatan ini, makalah ini mengidentifikasi beberapa topik utama dari perdebatan di antara para penganut pendekatan tersebut, yaitu posisi fikih dalam mendefinisikan konsep-konsep dalam ekonomi Islam, maqāsid al-Syariah yang harus dipedomani dalam aktivitas-aktivitas ekonomi, dan juga pertanyaan tentang efektivitas penerapan konsep-konsep yang dihasilkan.

Keywords

Riba; Islamic Economics; Fiqh; Objective of Sharia

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