PARADIGMA HUKUM ISLAM TEOANTROPOSENTRIS: TELAAH PARADIGMATIS PEMIKIRAN FAZLUR RAHMAN DAN ABDULLAH SAEED

Abid Rohmanu(1*)
(1) IAIN Ponorogo
(*) Corresponding Author
DOI : 10.21154/kodifikasia.v13i1.1679

Abstract

Penelitian ini ingin melihat bagaimana paradigma dan teori penafsiran hukum Fazlur Rahman dan Abdullah Saeed. Teori penafsiran Rahman (double movement) dan Saeed (teori kontekstual), penulis hipotesakan mempunyai sandaran paradigmatis yang mapan. Dalam konteks inilah, tulisan ini juga ingin menelisik bagaimana relasi paradigma dan teori penafsiran hukum mereka berdua. Hal ini penting karena telah terjadi krisis paradigmatis dalam studi hukum Islam, yakni terpisahnya wacana teologi sebagai basis paradigmatis hukum dengan wacana hukum Islam itu sendiri. Tulisan ini berbentuk kajian pustaka terhadap pemikiran Rahman dan Saeed. Sebagai alat analisis, penulis memakai teori paradigma sebagaimana digagas oleh Thomas Kuhn dan yang dikembangkan oleh pemikir lain semisal Kuntowijoyo dan Hans Kung. Tulisan ini menyimpulkan, pertama, paradigma Rahman dan Saeed berporos pada visi teologis yang telah bergeser dari teosentris atau antroposentris ke teoantroposentris. Pergeseran visi teologis tersebut adalah dari keimanan tauhidi yang abstrak ke yang fungsional, dari keadilan formal ke keadilan yang substantif, dari peran akal sebagai the logic of justivication and repetition ke the logic of discovery, dari keterbelengguan manusia (fatalisme) ke kebebasan (freedom). Kedua, konsisten dengan paradigma di atas, Rahman dan Saeed merumuskan teori double movement (gerakan ganda) dan teori kontekstual. Teori kontekstual Saeed adalah pengembangan lebih lanjut dari teori gerakan ganda Rahman. Saeed memperjelas bentuk teori gerakan ganda dan merumuskan hirarki nilai. karena itu penulis mensintesakan teori keduanya sebagai penalaran reflektif hukum berbasis nilai maqa>s}id. [This study wants to see how the paradigm and the theory of law interpretation of Fazlur Rahman and Abdullah Saeed. The theory of Rahman (double movement) and Saeed's interpretation (contextual theory), the hypothesis writer has an established paradigmatic backrest. In this context, this paper also wants to explore how the relations of paradigms and the theory of legal interpretation both of them. This is important because there has been a paradigmatic crisis in the study of Islamic law, namely the separation of theological discourse as a paradigmatic basis of law with the discourse of Islamic law it self. This paper takes the form of a literature study of the thoughts of Rahman and Saeed. As an analysis tool, the author uses paradigm theory as initiated by Thomas Kuhn and developed by other thinkers such as Kuntowijoyo and Hans Kung. This paper concludes, first, that the paradigm of Rahman and Saeed pivots on the theological vision that has shifted from theocentric or anthropocentric to theoanthropocentric. The theological vision shift is from the tauhidi faith which is abstract to the functional, from formal justice to substantive justice, from the role of reason as the logic of justification and repetition to the logic of discovery, from human reluctance (fatalism) to freedom. Second, consistent with the paradigm above, Rahman and Saeed formulated the theory of double movement and contextual theory. Saeed's contextual theory is a further development of Rahman's double movement theory. Saeed clarified the form of double movement theory and formulated a value hierarchy. Therefore the author synthesizes the second theory as a value-based legal reflective reasoning].

Keywords


double movement (gerakan ganda); teori kontekstual; paradigma; hukum Islam.

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