The Construction of Indonesian Political Fiqh: Maqasid Al-Shariah Perspective and Ahmad Ar-Raisuni’s Thoughts

Autor(s): Syaiful Bahri
DOI: 10.21154/justicia.v16i1.1671

Abstract

Some issues in various classical political fiqh literatures are irrelevant if applied in the current context. This paper discusses how important the reconstruction and renewal of several issues in classical political fiqh is adapted to the plural Indonesian context. In this study, the author uses the Maqasid al-Shariah theory and Ahmad ar-Raisuni’s thinking which specifically addresses political issues as the main frame of analysis. By conducting a library study, this study concludes that several issues in classical political fiqh are indeed irrelevant to the times, and therefore need to be updated and reviewed. In additions, this study also has resulted in a new construction of Indonesian political fiqh which formulated in four crucial issues: democracy, state format, criteria for leaders in Indonesia, and application of Islamic Law (Shariah).

Beberapa isu dalam pelbagai literatur Fiqh Siyāsah klasik sudah tidak relevan jika diterapkan dalam konteks saat ini. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan bagaimana pentingnya melakukan rekonstruksi dan pembaruan terhadap beberapa isu dalam Fiqh Siyāsah klasik disesuaikan dengan konteks Indonesia yang plural. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan teori Maqāsid al-Shariah dan pemikiran Ahmad ar-Raisuni yang secara spesifik membahas persoalan politik (siyāsah) sebagai pisau analisis utamanya. Dengan melakukan studi kepustakaan, kajian ini menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa beberapa isu dalam literatur Fiqh Siyāsah klasik memang sudah tidak relevan dengan perkembangan zaman, dan sebab itu perlu dilakukan pembaruan dan tinjauan ulang. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga menghasilkan konstruksi baru Fikih Politik Indonesia yang dirumuskan dalam empat isu krusial: demokrasi, bentuk Negara, kriteria pemimpin di Indonesia, dan penerapan syariat Islam.

Keywords

Reconstruction; Fiqh Siyasah; Maqasid al-Shariah; Ar-Raisuni

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