Reformulating The Concept of Maṣlaḥah: From A Textual Confinement Towards A Logic Determination

Autor(s): Iffatin Nur, Muhammad Ngizzul Muttaqin
DOI: 10.21154/justicia.v17i1.1807

Abstract

Up to this contemporary era, the concept of maṣlaḥah developed by several leading Muslim scholars seems to be rather theocentric in a way that it is transfixed on the maṣlaḥah considerations contained in the texts (naṣṣ). This means that the concept of maṣlaḥah has so far been shadowed in the textual confinement so that the resulting maṣlaḥah becomes an old-fashioned, stagnant, and less-able concept for responding to the times’ challenges. This study aims to open up discourses and opportunities for the development and reformulation of maṣlaḥah in the current contemporary era. This qualitative study is library research. The data used were obtained from book literature, journals, and other writings related to maṣlaḥah and were analyzed using a content analysis method. The discussion was done by describing the historical data of previous thoughts on maṣlaḥah from textual confinement to logic determination, which was then formulated with the reality of today's modern era life. The results of this study indicate that: 1) from its historical aspect, the reformulation of maṣlaḥah is one which has so far only been assessed in the perspective of Shāri' (the Law Maker). Hence, it is necessary to reformulate it in the perspective of mujtahīd by referring to maṣlaḥah associated with the issues’ reality context, 2) there is a need to incorporate the concept of ethics and humanity into the structure of maṣlaḥah, and 3) there present a necessity to formulate a collective-based ijtihād in probing of maṣlaḥah to create a scientific maṣlaḥah-based ijtihād methodology.

Hingga pada era kontemporer sekarang ini, konsep maṣlaḥah yang dikembangkan oleh beberapa tokoh ilmuwan Muslim tampak lebih bersifat teosentris yang terpaku pada pertimbangan maṣlaḥah yang terdapat pada teks (naṣṣ). Artinya, konsep maṣlaḥah selama ini masih terbayang-bayang dalam kungkungan teks sehingga maṣlaḥah yang dihasilkan menjadi konsep yang jumud, stagnan, dan kurang bisa merespon tantangan zaman. Penelitian ini berusaha membuka wacana dan peluang terhadap perkembangan dan reformulasi maṣlaḥah pada era kontemporer saat ini. Penelitian ini adalah sebuah studi pustaka (library research) yang dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif. Data yang dipakai berasal dari literatur buku, jurnal, dan tulisan-tulisan lain yang berkaitan dengan maṣlaḥah dan dianalisa menggunakan metode content analysis. Pembahasan dilakukan dengan mendeskripsikan data sejarah pemikiran maṣlaḥah dari proses kungkungan teks hingga determinasi akal yang kemudian diformulasikan dengan realitas kehidupan era modern saat ini. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: 1) reformulasi maṣlaḥah dari aspek sejarah adalah maṣlaḥah yang selama ini hanya dinilai dalam perspektif Syari’, karena itu perlu mereformulasinya dalam perspektif mujtahid dengan mengacu kepada maṣlaḥah yang dikaitkan dengan konteks realitas permasalahan, 2) perlu untuk memasukkan konsep etika dan kemanusiaan dalam struktur maṣlaḥah, dan 3) perlu untuk mereformulasikan ijtihād berbasis kolektif dalam pengambilan maṣlaḥah guna menciptakan metodologi ijtihād berbasis maṣlaḥah yang ilmiah.

Keywords

Logic Determination; Collective-based Ijtihād; Textual Confinement; Maṣlaḥah; Reformulation

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