The New Fiqh in A National School of Legal Thought: A Paradigm Shift in National School of Islamic Law on M. Barry Hooker’s Perspective

Autor(s): Wildani Hefni
DOI: 10.21154/justicia.v17i1.1966

Abstract

The polemic of the domain between religious regulation and state authority in the national school of Islamic law in Indonesia seems to be endlessly debated by Indonesian and Western Scholars, Muslims, and non-muslims. This article discusses western scholarly discourses on the National School of Islamic law by examining the thoughts and works of M. Barry Hooker. Hooker introduced the term “new fiqh” in the national school of Islamic discourse and explained that the state's Indonesian fiqh was instrumentalized. Based on the model of the study of public figures and grounded its primary data of Hooker’s work, this paper shows that Hooker criticizes the shifting paradigm of classical fiqh text to fiqh dominated by the state. The state determines the process of fiqh with various instruments and public transmission of sharia, including religious bureaucratization, state intervention in the Islamic legal education curriculum, and religious pulpit mediums.

Fikih mazhab nasional mengemuka dalam perebutan domain antara peraturan agama dan otoritas negara. Diskursus ini menjadi perdebatan baik di kalangan sarjana Indonesia maupun sarjana di Barat. Tulisan ini mengkaji diskursus hukum Islam mazhab nasional yang dikenal dengan istilah fikih baru dari seorang intelektual di Barat bernama M. Barry Hooker. Hooker memandang fikih Indonesia saat ini merupakan fikih yang dibentuk dan diinstrumentalisasi oleh negara. Dengan menggunakan model kajian pemikiran tokoh serta karya kesarjanaannya, tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa Hooker memiliki pandangan yang kritis dengan mengungkap pergeseran dari fikih klasik yang didasarkan pada teks keagamaan kearah fikih mazhab nasional dengan dominasi peran negara. Negara menjadi penentu proses perjalanan fikih dengan pelbagai instrumen yang diberikan pada masyarakat, antara lain birokratisasi agama, intervensi negara dalam kurikulum pendidikan hukum Islam, dan melalui medium mimbar keagamaan.

Keywords

New Fiqh; National School; Islamic Law; MB Hooker

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