The Study of Australian Government Policies on Maqasid al-Sharia Perspective

Autor(s): M. Noor Harisudin
DOI: 10.21154/justicia.v18i2.2772

Abstract

This article discusses the Australian government policies from the perspective of Maqasid al-Shari’a. The performance of policies focusing on the study is traffic laws, taxes, the environment, and anti-domestic violence. In several literature pieces, Maqasid al-Shari’a is defined as the purpose, objective, and secret set by Allah SWT in every Sharia law. Maqasid al-Shari’a is also defined as “something that is the goal (Shari) of Allah in making law.” In addition to being ‘ammah (general), khassah (unique), and juz’iyah (parts), in Islam, Maqasid al-Shari’a is based on five main points as follows: protecting religion, protecting the soul, protecting reason, protecting property, and protecting descendants. After conducting in-depth interviews with several informants, books, journals and tracing the laws on traffic, tax, environment, and anti-domestic violence in Australia, the conclusion is that the Australian government policies are based on Maqasid al-Shari’a in one part. However, it is not a country based on religion or Sharia in the other part. Australia is a liberal country providing freedom for its citizens to have faith or no belief. However, in several other respects, it appears that the Australian government’s policies are against the Maqasid al-Shari’a, such as the ability to drink heavily in limited spaces, the life of same-sex marriages, and so on. This article is critical in developing policy studies of the non-Islamic countries on Maqasid al-Shari’a perspective.

Artikel ini membahas tentang kebijakan pemerintah Australia dalam perspektif Maqashid Syariah. Kebijakan yang menjadi fokus dalam penelitian dimaksud adalah undang-undang lalu lintas, pajak, lingkungan hidup dan anti kekerasan dalam rumah tangga. Dalam sejumlah literatur, Maqashid Sharia sendiri diartikan sebagai maksud, tujuan dan rahasia yang ditetapkan oleh Allah SWT pada setiap hukum Syariah. Maqashid Syariah juga didefinisikan sebagai "sesuatu yang menjadi tujuan (Syari) Allah dalam mensyariatkan hukum”. Selain ada yang bersifat ‘ammah (umum), khassah (khusus) dan juz’iyah (bagian-bagian), dalam Islam Maqashid Syariah didasarkan pada lima hal pokok utama sebagaimana berikut; menjaga agama, menjaga jiwa, menjaga akal, menjaga harta, dan menjaga keturunan. Setelah melakukan wawancara yang mendalam pada sejumlah informan, penelusuran pada buku, jurnal dan undang-undang lalu lintas, pajak, lingkungan hidup dan anti kekerasan dalam rumah tangga di Australia, maka diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa kebijakan pemerintah Australia secara nyata sebagian telah didasarkan pada maqashid syariah, namun pada sebagian yang lain masih belum sesuau maqasyid syariah. Australia adalah negara liberal yang memberikan kebebasan bagi warganya untuk beragama atau tidak beragama. Namun demikian, dalam beberapa hal yang lain, terlihat kebijakan pemerintah Australia yang bertentangan dengan maqasyid sharia seperti kebolehan minumuan keras pada ruang terbatas, hidupnya perkawinan sejenis, dan sebagainya. Artikel ini memberi konstribusi penting dalam studi kebijakan pemerintah Negara bukan Islam dalam perspektif maqashid syariah.

Keywords

government policies; Australia; maqasid al-sharia

Full Text:

PDF

References

Al, Ghazali. Al-Mustasyfa Min Ilm al-Ushul. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub, tt.

Al, -Juwaini. Al-Burhan, Juz 2. Tp: Dar al-Wafa, tth.

Al-Amiri, M. Romzi. Ad-Durar as-Saniyah Maqashid al-Syariah al-Islamiyah. -: Markaz at-Tabh al-Amiri, 1437.

As, Syatibi. Al-Muwafaqat Fi Ushul al-Ahkam, II. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, tt.

Athiyah, Jamaludin. Nahwa Ta’fil Maaqashid as-Syari’ah. Damaskus: Darul Fikri, 2003.

Auda, Jaser. Maqashid Shariah as Philosophy as Islamic Law, A System Approach. London: IIIT, 2007.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Conceptual Framework for Family and Domestic Violence Cat. No. 4529.0, ABS, Canberra: viewed 6 December 2009.

Az-Zuhaili, Wahbah. Ushul Fiqh Al-Islami I. Damaskus: Dar al-Fikr, tt.

Bakri, Asafri Jaya. Konsep Maqasyid Syariah Menurut As-Syatibi. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 1996.

Bashor Lutfi, Alwi. “Maslahat Menurut Najmuddin At-Thufi.” Jurnal IAIN Manado: Jurnal Potret Pemikiran Vol. 15, no. No. 1 (2012).

Commissioner of Taxation Annual Report 2012-13. Australian Taxation Office: Australian Government, 2013.

Harisudin, M. Noor. Ilmu Ushul Fiqh. Malang: Instran Publishing, 2021.

———. Islam Di Australia. Surabaya: Pustaka Radja, 2019.

Harisudin, M Noor, Muhammad Choriri, On The Legal Sanction Against Marriage Registration Violation in Southeast Asia Countries: A Jasser Auda’s Maqasid Al-Shariah Perspective, Samarah, Vol 5, No 1 (2021)

Hasaballah, Ali. , Ushul at-Tasyri al-Islami. Egypt: Dar al-Ma’rifah, 1964.

Ibn-Qayyim-al-Jawziyyah. “I’lam al Muwaqqi’in ’an Rabbi al ’Alamin.” Dar al Kutub al ’Ilmiyyah, 1991.

Johari, J. “Konsep Maslahah Izzudin Ibn Abdi Salam: Telaah Kitab Qawa`id al-Ahkam Limashalih al-Anam.” Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman 8, no. 1 (June 6, 2013): 69–88. https://doi.org/10.21274/epis.2013.8.1.69-88.

Kasdi, Abdurrohman. “Actualizations of Maqāşid Al-Shariah In Modern Life; Maqāşid Al-Shariah Theory As a Method of The Development of Islamic Laws and Shariah Economics.” Justicia Islamica 16, no. 2 (November 19, 2019): 247–68. https://doi.org/10.21154/justicia.v16i2.1666.

Khalaf, Abd Wahab. Ilmu Ushul Fiqh. Kairo: Dar Ihya al-Kutub, tt.

Majlis Ulama Indonesia,. Himpunan Fatwa MUI Sejak Tahun 1975. Jakarta: Penerbir Airlangga, 2011.

Morgan, A, and H Chadwick. Key Issues in Domestic Violence, Summary Paper, No. 7, Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC). Canberra, December 2009, p. 1, 2010.

Mr, Galuh Nasrullah Kartika, and Hasni Noor. “Konsep Maqashid al-Syari’ah dalam Menentukan Hukum Islam (Perspektif Al-Syatibi dan Jasser Auda).” Al Iqtishadiyah Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah dan Hukum Ekonomi Syariah 1, no. 1 (December 18, 2014): 50–69. https://doi.org/10.31602/iqt.v1i1.136.

Nasrulloh, Nasrulloh. “Maqashid Shari'ah Sebagai Pendekatan Sistem Dalam Hukum Islam.” Journal de Jure 2, no. 2 (December 30, 2010). https://doi.org/10.18860/j-fsh.v2i2.2970.

Pajalic, Amra and Demet Divaren (editors). Growing Up Muslim in Australia: Allen and Unwin, 2019.

Susanti, Salamah Eka. “Pendekatan Sistem Dalam Teori Hukum Islam (Membaca Pemikiran Jasser Auda).” Asy-Syari’ah : Jurnal Hukum Islam 1, no. 1 (June 1, 2015): 109–25.

Yasmeen, Samina (Editor). Muslims in Australia: The Dynamix of Exclusion and Inclusion, Australia: Melbourne Univerity Press, 2010., n.d.

Zahra, Abu. Usul Fiqh. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabiyah, 1994.

Zul Anwar, Ajim Harahap. “Konsep Maqashid Syariah Sebagai Dasar Penetapan Dan Penerapannya Dalam Hukum Islam Menurut Izzudin Bin Abd Salam.” Jurnal Tadzkir Vol. 9, no. No. 2 (2014).

www.indonesia.embassy.gov.au

Environment Legislation Amendment Act 2015 No. 11, 2015 on https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2015A00011/Html/Text.

Family Law Act 1975 No. 53, 1975 on https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2020C00374/Html/Volume_1

Income Tax Act 1986 No. 108, 1986 on https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016C00461/Html/Text

National Transport Commission (Road Transport Legislation—Driver Licensing) Regulations 2006 on https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2016C00706/Html/Text.

https://www.aph.gov.au/about_parliament/parliamentary_departments/parliamentary_library/pubs/bn/2011-2012/dvaustralia.

https://greens.org.au/vic/about/history.

https://www.environment.gov.au/land/nrs/about-nrs/australias-protected-areas

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.