• Nala Sita Rukmi STKIP PGRI Jombang
  • Nurul Khasanah IAIN Ponorogo
Abstract views: 531 , PDF downloads: 1243
Keywords: Code switching, Bilingual Education, International Secondary school


Indonesian government policy supports the international of education at the
secondary level, consequently more institutions have commenced bilingual programs.
Content is taught both in Bahasa Indonesia and English, making code-switching in
classroom discourse. The study was conducted at a single International school in
Semarang, East Java, Indonesia. This case study explored in what ways and under
what circumstances Indonesian teachers and learners use code-switching in the
selected bilingual classroom and semi structured interviews with six-bilingual class
students and teachers at an International secondary school in Semarang, East Java in
Indonesia are used to get the data. The finding shows Teachers’ and students’ codeswitching
demonstrated collectivist phatic functions – for example, teachers codeswitched
to build rapport, remind students and reduce students’ anxiety, and students
code-switched to show their solidarity and concern for their peers. Thus,
interconnectedness was a key characteristic of code-switching by both teachers and
students. This study argues that code-switching is not just about language deficiency,
but involves intentional communicative purposes which support teaching and
learning. It can be concluded that code-switching can be a useful tool to bring about
understanding of unfamiliar concepts and processes as well as the language
associated with them.


Act of The Republic of Indonesia. (2013). Number 32 Year 2013 about the changes

of The

Government Policy Number 19 Year 2005 on the Standard of National

Education. Retrieved 20/05/2013 from

Arthur, J. & Martin, P. (2006). Accomplishing lessons in postcolonial classrooms:


perspectives from Botswana and Brunei Darussalam. Comparative

Education, 42(2), 177-202.

Andersson, I. & Rusanganwa, J. (2011). Language and space in a multilingual


physics classroom in Rwanda. International Journal of Bilingual Education

and Bilingualism, 14(6), 751-764.

Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Bristol:


Matters Limited.

Blackburn, A.M. (2018). Cognitive Impact of Bilingualism and Language Habits at

the Bordersof Cultures and Nations. In: Inquiries into Literacy Learning and Cultural


in a World of Borders (ed. T. Huber and P.S. Roberson),141---


Information Age Publishing.

Creese, A. & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A

pedagogy for

learning and teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 103- 115.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education (7th

Edn.). London: Routledge Falmer.

Cahyono, B. & Widiati, U. (2004). The tapestry of English language teaching and

learning in

Indonesia. Malang: State University of Malang Press.

Ferguson, G. (2003). Classroom code-switching in post-colonial contexts:

Functions, attitudes

and policies. AILA review, 16(1), 38-51.

Ferguson, G. (2009). What next? Towards an agenda for classroom code-switching


International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(2), 231-

García, O., & Kleifgen,J. (2018). Educating Emergent Bilinguals: Policies, programs


Practices for English Learners. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College


Kirkpatrick, A. (2014a). Afterword. In R. Barnard, & J. McLellan (Eds.), Code

switching in

university English-medium classes: Asian perspectives (pp. 214-221).

Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Lin, A. (2008). Code-switching in the classroom: Research paradigms and

approaches. In K. A.

King & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education

(pp. 273-286). Boston: Springer US.

Levine, G.S. (2011). Code choice in the language classroom. Bristol: Multilingual


Martin, N. (2011). Code-switching in Indonesian as a second language classrooms:


between Indonesian and English. Saarbrücken: Lap Lambert.

Moodley, V. (2007). Code-switching in the multilingual English first language


International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(6), 707-

Macaro, E. (2014). Where should we be going with classroom code switching

research? In R.

Barnard & J. McLellan (Eds.), Code-switching in university English-medium

classes: Asian perspectives (pp. 10-23). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Palmer, D.K. (2009). Code-switching and symbolic power in a second-grade twoway

classroom: A teacher's motivation system gone awry. Bilingual Research

Journal, 32(1), 42-59.

Rezvani, E. & Rasekh, A. (2011). Code-switching in Iranian elementary EFL

classrooms: An

exploratory investigation. English Language Teaching, 4(1), 18- 25.

Tien, C. & Li, D.C.S. (2014). Code-switching in a university in Taiwan. In R. Barnard

& J.

McLellan (Eds.), Code-switching in university English-medium classes Asian

perspectives (pp. 92-104). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Truckenbrodt, A. & De Courcy, M. (2002). Implementing a bilingual program.


Association of Independent Schools of Victoria.

PlumX Metrics